IGNORE NULLS: This is not the mission statement of a right-wing political party :), but an optional clause in some of Oracle's analytic functions. Recently I posted a query on OTN that used Last_Value with this clause to simplify another poster's solution to a grouping problem. It occurred to me then that the clause is much more powerful than is generally appreciated, and I'll try to demonstrate that below.
Oracle describes the analytic function First_Value in its SQL manual thus:
'FIRST_VALUE is an analytic function. It returns the first value in an ordered set of values. If the first value in the set is null, then the function returns NULL unless you specify IGNORE NULLS. This setting is useful for data densification.'
Although accurate, the reference to data densification possibly undersells it: When used in conjunction with CASE expressions, IGNORE NULLS allows you effectively to include a WHERE condition on the rows processed by the function, in addition to the partitioning and windowing conditions. This is useful because the latter two conditions have to be defined relative to the current row, whereas the new condition is absolute. Let's take an example based on Oracle's demo HR schema.
Suppose that we want a list of employees, and for each employee we want to assign another employee, perhaps as a mentor. We'll take the following rules:
- The mentor has to be in the same department
- The mentor has to earn more than the employee, but not too much more, say up to 1000 more
- The mentor has to have worked at the company since at least a certain date, say 01-JAN-1998
Subject to these rules, we'll take the highest-earning (or maybe the lowest, let's try both) employee as mentor, and won't worry about tie-breaks for this post.
The objective of maximising (or minimising) the mentor's salary subject to the rules implies the use of Last_Value (or First_Value) with an ordering on salary (we can't use Max because we don't want to return just the salary). The first two conditions can be implemented as partioning and windowing clauses respectively, and operate relative to the current employee. The third condition is absolute though and can't be implemented within the analytic clause itself, which is where IGNORE NULLS comes in. If we make the operand a CASE expression that returns the required details only for employees that meet the required condition and null otherwise, this will implement the required condition. A possible query would be:
SELECT emp.first_name ||' ' || emp.last_name employee, dep.department_name dept, To_Char (emp.hire_date, 'DD-MON-YYYY') hire_date, emp.salary, Last_Value (CASE WHEN emp.hire_date < '01-JAN-1998' THEN emp.first_name || ' ' || emp.last_name || ', ' || To_Char (emp.hire_date, 'DD-MON-YYYY') || ', ' || emp.salary END IGNORE NULLS) OVER (PARTITION BY emp.department_id ORDER BY emp.salary RANGE BETWEEN 1 FOLLOWING AND 1000 FOLLOWING) mentor FROM employees emp JOIN departments dep ON dep.department_id = emp.department_id ORDER BY 2, 4, 1;
Of course, there may be employees who don't have a mentor on our rules, but here are the first few records for the Shipping department (note that I deleted the department column to reduce scrolling):
EMPLOYEE HIRE_DATE SALARY MENTOR ------------------ ----------- ------ ----------------------------------- TJ Olson 10-APR-1999 2100 Curtis Davies, 29-JAN-1997, 3100 Hazel Philtanker 06-FEB-2000 2200 Julia Nayer, 16-JUL-1997, 3200 Steven Markle 08-MAR-2000 2200 Julia Nayer, 16-JUL-1997, 3200 James Landry 14-JAN-1999 2400 Laura Bissot, 20-AUG-1997, 3300 Ki Gee 12-DEC-1999 2400 Laura Bissot, 20-AUG-1997, 3300 James Marlow 16-FEB-1997 2500 Trenna Rajs, 17-OCT-1995, 3500 Joshua Patel 06-APR-1998 2500 Trenna Rajs, 17-OCT-1995, 3500 Martha Sullivan 21-JUN-1999 2500 Trenna Rajs, 17-OCT-1995, 3500 Peter Vargas 09-JUL-1998 2500 Trenna Rajs, 17-OCT-1995, 3500 Randall Perkins 19-DEC-1999 2500 Trenna Rajs, 17-OCT-1995, 3500 Donald OConnell 21-JUN-1999 2600 Renske Ladwig, 14-JUL-1995, 3600
TJ Olson 10-APR-1999 2100 James Marlow, 16-FEB-1997, 2500 Hazel Philtanker 06-FEB-2000 2200 James Marlow, 16-FEB-1997, 2500 Steven Markle 08-MAR-2000 2200 James Marlow, 16-FEB-1997, 2500 James Landry 14-JAN-1999 2400 James Marlow, 16-FEB-1997, 2500 Ki Gee 12-DEC-1999 2400 James Marlow, 16-FEB-1997, 2500 James Marlow 16-FEB-1997 2500 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800 Joshua Patel 06-APR-1998 2500 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800 Martha Sullivan 21-JUN-1999 2500 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800 Peter Vargas 09-JUL-1998 2500 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800 Randall Perkins 19-DEC-1999 2500 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800 Donald OConnell 21-JUN-1999 2600 Mozhe Atkinson, 30-OCT-1997, 2800
In general, to find the last value of an expression in a record set ordered by a possibly different expression, with an absolute condition on the records to be considered, use the following form of the function:
Last_Value (CASE WHEN absolute_condition THEN return_expression END IGNORE NULLS) OVER (partitioning_clause ORDER BY order_expression windowing_clause)
Note that there is an interesting special case that arises when forming break groups defined by changes in sequential records in an ordered set. The break points can often be obtained by the Lag and Lead analytic functions, and the groups that other records belong to can then be found through expressions of the above type. However, analytic functions can't be nested, so the first step needs to be performed in a separate subquery (inline view or subfactor) -see the first embedded scribd document below for further details on the SQL for this common requirement.
I stated above that we wouldn't worry about tie-breaks in this post, but it's worth mentioning that Oracle allows multiple columns in the ORDER BY only if the windowing clause includes only UNBOUNDED and CURRENT ROW terms. However, you can often pack multiple columns into a single expression by formatting numbers with fixed size and zero-padding etc.
Other Analytic Functions and Null Values
IGNORE NULLS can also be used with Lead and Lag and the new 11.2 function Nth_Value, which extends First_Value, Last_Value to specific ranked values. It is interesting to note that some of the other functions, such as Sum, ignore nulls implicitly:
SELECT 1 + NULL added, Sum (x) summed FROM ( SELECT 1 X FROM DUAL UNION SELECT NULL FROM DUAL); ADDED SUMMED ---------- ---------- 1
In Oracle null signifies an unknown value and therefore adding null to any number, for example, results in null. Technically, you would therefore expect a sum that includes a null value to result in null, but in fact it does not as the SQL above shows. No doubt practicality won out over theory here.
Again, with other functions such as Sum we can apply a condition by using a CASE expression that returns null or zero if the condition is not met, although not with certain functions such as Avg (but where we could sum and count separately and then calculate the average ourselves).
Other Examples with IGNORE NULLS
Here is the OTN thread mentioned earlier: Custom ranking. The table temp3 contains transactions, some of which are defined to be interest-only transactions based on a condition on two fields. The requirement is to list all non-interest transactions but to summarise interest-only transactions beneath the previous non-interest transaction. My solution, simplifying an earlier proposed solution, involved using Last_Value with IGNORE NULLS in a subfactor to associate the prior non-interest transaction with all transactions, and then doing a GROUP BY in the main query.
BREAK ON trx_grp WITH grp AS ( SELECT Last_Value (CASE WHEN tran_id != 'SHD' OR flg = 'N' THEN tran_code END IGNORE NULLS) OVER (ORDER BY tran_code) trx_grp, tran_id, flg, tran_date, tran_code, amt FROM temp3 ) SELECT tran_id, flg, Min (tran_date) "From", Max (tran_date) "To", trx_grp, Sum (amt) FROM grp GROUP BY tran_id, flg, trx_grp ORDER BY trx_grp, flg / TRA FLG From To TRX_GRP SUM(AMT) --- --- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ADV N 31-OCT-11 31-OCT-11 59586455 50 SHD Y 01-NOV-11 02-NOV-11 10 PAY N 03-NOV-11 03-NOV-11 59587854 50 PAY N 03-NOV-11 03-NOV-11 59587855 50 SHD Y 03-NOV-11 05-NOV-11 9 PAY N 06-NOV-11 06-NOV-11 59588286 50 SHD N 06-NOV-11 06-NOV-11 59590668 50 PAY N 07-NOV-11 07-NOV-11 59590669 50 8 rows selected.
I have also used First_Value, Last_Value to help form range-based groups, here (if you can't see the document, 'Forming Range-Based Break Groups with Advanced SQL', it is also in the previous post, up the page):
Using KEEP with the First and Last Functions
FIRST and LAST are very similar functions. Both are aggregate and analytic functions that operate on a set of values from a set of rows that rank as the FIRST or LAST with respect to a given sorting specification. If only one row ranks as FIRST or LAST, then the aggregate operates on the set with only one element.
and describes their value thus:
When you need a value from the first or last row of a sorted group, but the needed value is not the sort key, the FIRST and LAST functions eliminate the need for self-joins or views and enable better performance.
This seems at first pretty similar to First_Value and Last_Value, so we might ask what they could do in relation to our requirements above. The problem for us is that we can't include a windowing clause as it's not allowed in this case, so we'd have to accept the maximum salary within the allowed date range:
SELECT emp.first_name ||' ' || emp.last_name employee, dep.department_name dept, To_Char (emp.hire_date, 'DD-MON-YYYY') hire_date, emp.salary, Max (CASE WHEN emp.hire_date < '01-JAN-1998' THEN emp.first_name || ' ' || emp.last_name || ', ' || To_Char (emp.hire_date, 'DD-MON-YYYY') || ', ' || emp.salary END) KEEP (DENSE_RANK LAST ORDER BY emp.salary) OVER (PARTITION BY emp.department_id) mentor FROM employees emp JOIN departments dep ON dep.department_id = emp.department_id ORDER BY 2, 4, 1; [dept deleted from output] EMPLOYEE HIRE_DATE SALARY MENTOR ------------------ ----------- ------ ----------------------------------- TJ Olson 10-APR-1999 2100 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Hazel Philtanker 06-FEB-2000 2200 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Steven Markle 08-MAR-2000 2200 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 James Landry 14-JAN-1999 2400 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Ki Gee 12-DEC-1999 2400 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 James Marlow 16-FEB-1997 2500 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Joshua Patel 06-APR-1998 2500 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Martha Sullivan 21-JUN-1999 2500 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Peter Vargas 09-JUL-1998 2500 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Randall Perkins 19-DEC-1999 2500 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200 Donald OConnell 21-JUN-1999 2600 Adam Fripp, 10-APR-1997, 8200
However, I thought these functions worth mentioning in this post because they can be very useful but seem to be not very well known. People often simulate the functions, in aggregate form anyway, by means of another analytic function, Row_Number, within an inline view but, as is generally the case, the native constructs are simpler and more efficient. I benchmarked various approaches for the aggregation case here (if you can't see the document, 'SQL Pivot and Prune Queries - Keeping an Eye on Performance', it is also in the previous post, up the page):