PL/SQL Profiling 4: Custom Code Timing

This article describes the use of a custom code timing PL/SQL package, Timer_Set, on two example program structures. The examples are designed to illustrate its behaviour over as many different scenarios as possible, while keeping the examples as simple as possible. It’s based on an article published in March 2013 on the hierarchical profiler and updated shortly thereafter with the inclusion of Oracle’s older flat profiler and of custom code timing. In June 2020 installation and source code were put onto GitHub, and the article was restructured into an overview article with the detail on the three profiling methods as separate articles, of which this is the third. Here are links to the other three articles:

PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview
PL/SQL Profiling 2: Hierarchical Profiler
PL/SQL Profiling 3: Flat Profiler

All source code, including installation scripts, is available on GitHub:
GitHub: Oracle PL/SQL Profiling

For this custom code timing demonstration I created a new version of the package used by the the Oracle profiling demos, and driver scripts (prefixed ts_) for the same examples.

These use an ‘object-oriented’ timing package that I wrote a few years ago Timer_Set: Oracle PL/SQL code timing module on GitHub to instrument at procedure and section level. It is often considered good practice to implement timing and other instrumentation permanently in production code.

In both examples a new timer set object is created, calls are made to increment timers within the set, and at the end a report on the timings is written to log. The way the timer set operates in general is illustrated by a diagram taken from the GitHub module:

Setup

The GitHub project linked to above includes scripts for setup of prerequisites such as grants and tables, and for installation of the custom code used for this demonstration. As described in the overview article, there are two example scripts profiled.

  • Example 1: General. This covers a wide range of scenarios
  • Example 2: Sleep. This covers the particular example of DBMS_Lock.Sleep

Timer Set Data Model

A logical data model is shown below. There are no physical tables involved.

Example 1: General

The example was descibed in PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview. The driver script is shown below:

SET TIMING ON
PROMPT B1: A_Calls_B 
DECLARE
  l_call_count       PLS_INTEGER := 0;
BEGIN
  Timer_Set_Test.Init;
  Timer_Set_Test.A_Calls_B(l_call_count);

END;
/
PROMPT SQL: Static DB function call
SELECT Timer_Set_Test.DBFunc
  FROM DUAL;

PROMPT B2: Static DB function; dynamic SQL; object constructor
DECLARE
  l_cur              SYS_REFCURSOR;
  l_ret_val          PLS_INTEGER;
  l_tab_count        Table_Count_Type;

BEGIN

  SELECT Timer_Set_Test.DBFunc
    INTO l_ret_val
    FROM DUAL;

  OPEN l_cur FOR 'SELECT Count(*) FROM all_tab_columns'; 
  Timer_Set_Test.Increment_Time('Open cursor');
  FETCH l_cur INTO l_ret_val; 
  Timer_Set_Test.Increment_Time('Fetch from cursor');
  CLOSE l_cur;
  Timer_Set_Test.Increment_Time('Close cursor');

  l_tab_count := Table_Count_Type('EMP');
  Timer_Set_Test.Increment_Time('Construct object');

END;
/
PROMPT B3: R_Calls_R; write times
DECLARE
  l_call_count       PLS_INTEGER := 0;
BEGIN

  Timer_Set_Test.R_Calls_R(l_call_count);

  Timer_Set_Test.Write_Times;

END;
/
SET TIMING OFF

The script is structured as an anonymous block, B1, then a stand-alone SQL query, followed by two more anonymous blocks, B2 and B3. The timer set is constructed in the first block within the call:

  Timer_Set_Test.Init

The script then increments timers at several points, again through calls to Timer_Set_Test, while Timer_Set_Test itself has timer calls inside. The results of the timing are listed at the end by the call:

  Timer_Set_Test.Write_Times;

Results for Example 1: General

Timer Set: Timer_Set_Test, Constructed at 27 Jun 2020 07:52:51, written at 07:52:52
===================================================================================
Timer                      Elapsed         CPU       Calls       Ela/Call       CPU/Call
----------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
A_Calls_B, section one        0.01        0.02           2        0.00600        0.01000
A_Calls_B, section two        0.03        0.02           2        0.01450        0.01000
B_Calls_A: 2                  0.03        0.03           1        0.03100        0.03000
B_Calls_A: 4                  0.06        0.06           1        0.06100        0.06000
DBFunc                        0.08        0.06           2        0.03850        0.03000
Open cursor                   0.00        0.00           1        0.00100        0.00000
Fetch from cursor             0.27        0.29           1        0.27400        0.29000
Close cursor                  0.00        0.00           1        0.00000        0.00000
Construct object              0.03        0.01           1        0.02500        0.01000
R_Calls_R                     0.04        0.03           2        0.02000        0.01500
(Other)                       0.00        0.00           1        0.00100        0.00000
----------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
Total                         0.55        0.52          15        0.03673        0.03467
----------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
[Timer timed (per call in ms): Elapsed: 0.00971, CPU: 0.01068]

Notes on Output

  • Calls, CPU and elapsed times have been captured at the section level for A_Calls_B
  • Observe that, while R_Calls_R and A_Calls_B aggregate over all calls, B_Calls_A records values by call; this is implemented simply by including a value that changes with call in the timer name:
      Increment_Time('B_Calls_A: ' || x_call_no);
  • The output shows how much of the elapsed time comes from CPU usage; in particular, note that R_Calls_R calls an inlined procedure Rest_a_While that does a square root operation in a loop to consume CPU time, and we can see that elapsed and CPU times are the same
  • The timer set object is designed to be very low footprint; here 9 statements (calls to Increment_Time), plus a small global overhead, produced 10 result lines, plus associated information
  • The Total line values are calculated using timing differences betwee reporting and construction of the timer set
  • The (Other) line values are calculated using the diffeences between the Total line values and the sums of the specific line values
  • The Timer timed line allows the overhead of the timing itself to be estimated
  • The ‘object-oriented’ approach allows multiple programs to be be timed at multiple levels, without interference between timings
  • Formatting such as column widths and decimal places can be specified as parameters in the reporting API call, and here take the default values

Example 2: Sleep

The example was described in PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview. The driver script is shown below:

SET TIMING ON
PROMPT B1: Construct timer set; DBMS_Lock.Sleep, 3 + 6; insert to trigger_tab; write timer set
DECLARE
  l_timer_set       PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  l_timer_set := Timer_Set.Construct('Profiling DBMS_Lock.Sleep');
  DBMS_Lock.Sleep(3);
  Timer_Set.Increment_Time(l_timer_set, '3 second sleep');

  INSERT INTO trigger_tab VALUES (2, 0.5);
  Timer_Set.Increment_Time(l_timer_set, 'INSERT INTO trigger_tab VALUES (2, 0.5)');

  DBMS_Lock.Sleep(6);
  Timer_Set.Increment_Time(l_timer_set, '6 second sleep');
  Utils.W(Timer_Set.Format_Results(l_timer_set));

END;
/
SET TIMING OFF

The script constructs a timer set, then makes calls to a system procedure, DBMS_Lock.Sleep, which sleeps without using CPU time, then inserts to a table with a Before Insert trigger that calls a custom sleep procedure, Utils.Sleep. Utils.Sleep itself calls DBMS_Lock.Sleep to do non-CPU sleeping and also runs a mathematical operation in a loop to use CPU time. Timers are incremented after each main call, and the results of the timing are writtten out at the end.

Results for Example 2: Sleep

Timer Set: Profiling DBMS_Lock.Sleep, Constructed at 27 Jun 2020 07:53:00, written at 07:53:11
==============================================================================================
Timer                                       Elapsed         CPU       Calls       Ela/Call       CPU/Call
---------------------------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
3 second sleep                                 3.00        0.00           1        3.00000        0.00000
INSERT INTO trigger_tab VALUES (2, 0.5)        2.00        1.00           1        1.99900        1.00000
6 second sleep                                 6.00        0.00           1        6.00000        0.00000
(Other)                                        0.00        0.00           1        0.00000        0.00000
---------------------------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
Total                                         11.00        1.00           4        2.74975        0.25000
---------------------------------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  -------------  -------------
[Timer timed (per call in ms): Elapsed: 0.00980, CPU: 0.00980]

Notes on Output

  • The two direct calls to the sleep procedure DBMS_Lock.Sleep consumed elapsed time of 3 and 6 seconds, as specified in the calls, but no CPU time
  • The insert statement consumed 2 seconds elapsed time, of which 1 second comes from CPU time, matching the field values, which the trigger uses to determine elapsed time and fraction of CPU time

Timer Set Custom Code Timing Feature Summary

We can summarise the features of Timer Set custom code timing in the following points:

  • Results are organised as tables of measures for lists of timers in one or more sets
  • Results are reported at the level of code section, and timing is aggregated between calls to API methods
  • Measures reported are elapsed times, numbers of calls, and CPU times
  • External program units may be included in the profiling: calls can be timed; internal profiling requires code changes
  • Profiling is performed, after initial setup, by means of instrumentation within the program units to be profiled, including an API call to return results

I applied my Timer_Set code timing package to some demo PL/SQL APIs in a Github module that also demonstrtates logging and unit testing. This is described here: Oracle PL/SQL API Demos Github Module






 

PL/SQL Profiling 3: Flat Profiler

This article describes the use of Oracle’s flat PL/SQL profiler (DBMS_PROFILER) on two example program structures. The examples are designed to illustrate its behaviour over as many different scenarios as possible, while keeping the examples as simple as possible. It’s based on an article published in March 2013 on the hierarchical profiler and updated shortly thereafter with the inclusion of Oracle’s older flat profiler and of custom code timing. In June 2020 installation and source code were put onto GitHub, and the article was restructured into an overview article with the detail on the three profiling methods as separate articles, of which this is the second. Here are links to the other three articles:

PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview
PL/SQL Profiling 2: Hierarchical Profiler
PL/SQL Profiling 4: Custom Code Timing

All source code, including installation scripts, is available on GitHub:
GitHub: Oracle PL/SQL Profiling
Tweet with recording attached

Setup

The flat profiler setup and use is described in the Oracle document DBMS_PROFILER. The GitHub project linked to above includes scripts for setup of prerequisites such as grants and tables, and for installation of the custom code used for this demonstration. As described in the overview article, there are two example scripts profiled.

  • Example 1: General. This covers a wide range of scenarios
  • Example 2: Sleep. This covers the particular example of DBMS_Lock.Sleep

PL/SQL Flat Profiler: Data Model

Example 1: General

The example was descibed in PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview. The driver script is shown below:

SET TIMING ON
PROMPT B1: Start profiling; A_Calls_B 
VAR RUN_ID NUMBER
DECLARE
  l_call_count       PLS_INTEGER := 0;
  l_result           PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN

  l_result := DBMS_Profiler.Start_Profiler(
          run_comment => 'Profile for small test program with recursion',
          run_number  => :RUN_ID);

  Utils.W('Start: profile run id = ' || :RUN_ID);
  Prof_Test.A_Calls_B(l_call_count);

END;
/
PROMPT SQL: Static DB function call
SELECT Prof_Test.DBFunc
  FROM DUAL;

PROMPT B2: Static DB function; dynamic SQL; object constructor
DECLARE
  l_cur              SYS_REFCURSOR;
  l_ret_val          PLS_INTEGER;
  l_tab_count        Table_Count_Type;

BEGIN

  SELECT Prof_Test.DBFunc
    INTO l_ret_val
    FROM DUAL;

  OPEN l_cur FOR 'SELECT Count(*) FROM all_tab_columns'; 
  FETCH l_cur INTO l_ret_val; 
  CLOSE l_cur;

  l_tab_count := Table_Count_Type('EMP');

END;
/
PROMPT B3: R_Calls_R; stop profiling
DECLARE
  l_call_count       PLS_INTEGER := 0;
BEGIN

  Prof_Test.R_Calls_R(l_call_count);

  Utils.W('Stop: result = ' || DBMS_Profiler.Stop_Profiler);
  
END;
/
SET TIMING OFF
@dprof_queries :RUN_ID

The script is structured as an anonymous block, B1, then a stand-alone SQL query, followed by two more anonymous blocks, B2 and B3. Profiling is started by a call to DBMS_Profiler.Start_Profiler in the first block.

The last block stops the profiling. The custom queries are run at the end from the script dprof_queries.sql, passing in the run identifier that’s been saved in a bind variable.

Results for Example 1: General

The results in this section come from the script dprof_queries.sql that queries the tables populated by the profiler.

Example 1: General – Run Header

The record produced in the run table, PLSQL_PROFILER_RUNS, was:

 Run Id Time     Seconds  Microsecs
------- -------- ------- ----------
      1 07:52:12   0.766     766000

Example 1: General – Profiler Data Summaries

Profiler data overall summary (PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA):

Seconds  Microsecs    Calls
------- ---------- --------
  0.731     730945       70

Profiler data summary by unit (PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA):

Unit                 Unit# Seconds  Microsecs    Calls
-------------------- ----- ------- ---------- --------
<anonymous>              1   0.000         47        3
<anonymous>              3   0.000         63        2
<anonymous>              4   0.000        103        2
<anonymous>              5   0.402     401821        6
<anonymous>              7   0.000        103        2
<anonymous>              8   0.000         87        3
PROF_TEST                2   0.309     308722       48
TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6   0.020      20000        4

Example 1: General – Profiler Data by Unit

The records produced in the functions table, PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA, are listed below in order of unit name, then unit number and line number. The table is joined to PLSQL_PROFILER_UNITS to get the unit name and other details, which are then used to outer-join to the system view ALL_SOURCE to get the line of source code for stored units (i.e. not for anonymous blocks).

Seconds  Microsecs   Min S   Max S    Calls Unit                 Unit# Type            Line# Line Text
------- ---------- ------- ------- -------- -------------------- ----- --------------- ----- ------------------------------------------------------------------
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     2
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     6
  0.000         26   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    10
  0.000         18   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    11
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    13
  0.000         63   0.000   0.000        2 <anonymous>              3 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000        103   0.000   0.000        2 <anonymous>              4 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000          8   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000        139   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     8
  0.151     150687   0.151   0.151        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    12
  0.251     250899   0.251   0.251        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    13
  0.000         30   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    14
  0.000         55   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    16
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              5 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    18
  0.000        103   0.000   0.000        2 <anonymous>              7 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000          4   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              8 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              8 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     2
  0.000         44   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              8 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     5
  0.000         39   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              8 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     7
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              8 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     9
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        0 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY        1 PACKAGE BODY Prof_Test AS
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       44 g_num NUMBER := 0;
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        0 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       71 PROCEDURE A_Calls_B(
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       75 x_call_no := x_call_no + 1;
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       76 PRAGMA INLINE (Rest_a_While, 'YES');
  0.017      16691   0.004   0.013        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       77 Rest_a_While(1000 * x_call_no);
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       79 PRAGMA INLINE (Rest_a_While, 'YES'); -- Both pragmas are required
  0.034      33515   0.009   0.025        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       80 Rest_a_While(2000 * x_call_no);
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       82 IF x_call_no < 4 THEN
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       83 B_Calls_A(x_call_no);
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       86 END A_Calls_B;
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        0 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       94 PROCEDURE B_Calls_A(
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       98 x_call_no := x_call_no + 1;
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY       99 PRAGMA INLINE (Rest_a_While, 'YES');
  0.126     126418   0.044   0.083        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      100 Rest_a_While(5000 * x_call_no);
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      102 IF x_call_no < 4 THEN
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      103 A_Calls_B(x_call_no);
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      106 END B_Calls_A;
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        0 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      114 PROCEDURE R_Calls_R(
  0.000         40   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      118 DBMS_Output.Put_Line('In R_Calls_R, x_call_no = ' || x_call_no);
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      119 x_call_no := x_call_no + 1;
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      120 PRAGMA INLINE (Rest_a_While, 'YES');
  0.041      40688   0.015   0.026        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      121 Rest_a_While(3000 * x_call_no);
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      123 IF x_call_no < 2 THEN
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      124 R_Calls_R(x_call_no);
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      127 END R_Calls_R;
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        0 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      134 FUNCTION DBFunc
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      138 PRAGMA INLINE (Rest_a_While, 'YES');
  0.091      91346   0.042   0.049        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      139 Rest_a_While(10000);
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      141 RETURN 99;
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        2 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      143 END DBFunc;
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        1 PROF_TEST                2 PACKAGE BODY      145 END Prof_Test;
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        0 TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6 TYPE BODY          50 CONSTRUCTOR FUNCTION Table_Count_Type(
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        1 TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6 TYPE BODY          54 SELF.search_str := p_search_str;
  0.020      19991   0.020   0.020        1 TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6 TYPE BODY          55 SELECT Count(*)
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        1 TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6 TYPE BODY          60 RETURN;
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        1 TABLE_COUNT_TYPE         6 TYPE BODY          62 END;

58 rows selected.

Notes on Output

The manual has notes on interpreting output, DBMS_PROFILER Operational Notes, and we can add some notes here on the output above.

Unit Names and Numbers

Unit numbers appear to be consecutive integers generated at run time in the order in which the units are encountered. Unit names for saved source code units such as packages and types are the names of the stored units. Anonymous blocks of PL/SQL are not stored as saved units and so do not have their own names, and are assigned the name <anonymous>, but separate top-level blocks have distinct unit numbers.

Named Units and Source Lines

Named units such as package and type bodies have source code lines accessible in the system view ALL_SOURCE, and these are displayed in the output above. See the query section below for the join code.

Anonymous Blocks

We can't include the source text for anonymous blocks as it is not stored in the database. However, we can generally work out which unit numbers correspond to which blocks manually, and then use the line numbers to identify the corresponding source lines, with the line numbers being counted from the first line in the block as line 1. For example, line 11 in the output above for unit 1 used about 1ms and can be seen to correspond to the 11'th line in the block labelled B1 in the driver script:

  Prof_Test.A_Calls_B(l_call_count);
PRAGMA INLINE

Calls to the Rest_a_While procedure in package Prof_Test are preceded by the inline pragma that causes the procedure code to be inlined by the PL/SQL engine. In this case we do not see any references to lines numbers 49-59 in Prof_Test where the procedure is located, only to the calling statements on lines 75, 78, 98, 119 and 137.

Example 2: Sleep

The example was descibed in PL/SQL Profiling 1: Overview. The driver script is shown below:

SET TIMING ON
VAR RUN_ID NUMBER
PROMPT B1: Start profiling; DBMS_Lock.Sleep, 3 + 6; stop profiling
DECLARE
  l_result           PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN

  l_result := DBMS_Profiler.Start_Profiler(
          run_comment => 'Profile for DBMS_Lock.Sleep example',
          run_number  => :RUN_ID);

  Utils.W('Start: profile run id = ' || :RUN_ID);

  DBMS_Lock.Sleep(3);

  INSERT INTO trigger_tab VALUES (2, 0.5);

  DBMS_Lock.Sleep(6);

  Utils.W('Stop: result = ' || DBMS_Profiler.Stop_Profiler);

END;
/
SET TIMING OFF
@dprof_queries :RUN_ID

The script runs the start profiling procedure, then makes calls to a system procedure, DBMS_Lock.Sleep, which sleeps without using CPU time, then inserts to a table with a Before Insert trigger that calls a custom sleep procedure, Utils.Sleep, and finally calls a custom utility that stops the profiling and analyses the trace file created. Utils.Sleep itself calls DBMS_Lock.Sleep to do non-CPU sleeping and also runs a mathematical operation in a loop to use CPU time. The custom queries are run at the end from the script hprof_queries.sql, passing in the run identifier that's been saved in a bind variable.

Results for Example 2: Sleep

The results in this section come from the script dprof_queries.sql that queries the tables populated by the profiler.

This second example was added after I came across an AskTom post concerning a discrepancy between reported times at the aggregate level and detail levels for the flat profiler. I posted a suggestion that using the hierarchical profiler might resolve the problem Try the hierarchical profiler..., and then added this second example to my original article in 2013 (since extended).

Example 2: Sleep - Run Header

The record produced in the run table, PLSQL_PROFILER_RUNS, was:

 Run Id Time     Seconds  Microsecs
------- -------- ------- ----------
      2 07:52:22  11.000   11000000

Example 2: Sleep - Profiler Data Summaries

Profiler data overall summary (PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA):

Seconds  Microsecs    Calls
------- ---------- --------
  0.000        265        7

Profiler data summary by unit (PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA):

Unit                 Unit# Seconds  Microsecs    Calls
-------------------- ----- ------- ---------- --------
<anonymous>              1   0.000        242        5
SLEEP_BI                 2   0.000         23        2

Example 2: Sleep - Profiler Data by Unit and Line

The records produced in the functions table, PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA, are listed below in order of unit name, then unit number and line number.

Seconds  Microsecs   Min S   Max S    Calls Unit                 Unit# Type            Line# Line Text
------- ---------- ------- ------- -------- -------------------- ----- --------------- ----- ------------------------------------------------------------------
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     1
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     5
  0.000         23   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK     9
  0.000         10   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    11
  0.000        199   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    13
  0.000          3   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    15
  0.000          5   0.000   0.000        1 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    17
  0.000          0   0.000   0.000        0 <anonymous>              1 ANONYMOUS BLOCK    19
  0.000          2   0.000   0.000        0 SLEEP_BI                 2 TRIGGER             1 TRIGGER sleep_bi
  0.000         20   0.000   0.000        1 SLEEP_BI                 2 TRIGGER             2 BEFORE INSERT
  0.000          1   0.000   0.000        1 SLEEP_BI                 2 TRIGGER             4 FOR EACH ROW

11 rows selected.

Notes on Output

Calls to Units with EXECUTE ONLY Access

The manual states "you cannot use the package to profile units for which EXECUTE ONLY access has been granted". In this example there are calls to two units where this applies: the system package DBMS_Lock, and the custom utility package Utils, which is in a different schema (lib) from the one (app) in which the script is run.

In the output above we can see the lines from which the calls are made but nothing within the units called.

Aggregate/Detail Timing Discrepancy

As was noted in the AskTom thread referenced above, where the flat profiler does not provide data for program units, such as DBMS_Lock.Sleep, the timings at the detail level do not add up to the overall time recorded in the runs table. As there were three calls using elapsed time of 11 seconds in total the total recorded in the runs table is 11 seconds, while this 11 seconds is missing from the detail records, which add up to only 265 microseconds in total.

Queries

The queries are in the script dprof_queries.sql. All queries are for a given RUNID, passed in as a sqlplus parameter.

Run Header Query

SELECT runid,
       To_Char(run_date, 'hh24:mi:ss') run_date,
       Round(run_total_time/1000000000, 3) seconds,
       Round(run_total_time/1000, 0)  micro_s
  FROM plsql_profiler_runs
 WHERE runid = &RUN_ID
  • RUN_TOTAL_TIME in nanoseconds is converted to seconds and microseconds

Profiler Data Overall Summary Query

SELECT Round(Sum(dat.total_time/1000000000), 3) seconds,
       Round(Sum(dat.total_time/1000), 0)  micro_s,
       Sum(dat.total_occur) calls
  FROM plsql_profiler_data dat
 WHERE dat.runid = &RUN_ID
  • This query sums the times and calls in PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA for the given RUNID

Profiler Data Summary by Unit Query

SELECT unt.unit_name,
       dat.unit_number,
       Round(Sum(dat.total_time/1000000000), 3) seconds,
       Round(Sum(dat.total_time/1000), 0)  micro_s,
       Sum(dat.total_occur) calls
  FROM plsql_profiler_data dat
  JOIN plsql_profiler_units unt
    ON unt.runid = dat.runid
   AND unt.unit_number = dat.unit_number
 WHERE dat.runid = &RUN_ID
 GROUP BY unt.unit_name,
          dat.unit_number
 ORDER BY 1, 2, 3
  • This query sums the times and calls in PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA by unit name and number, for the given RUNID

Lines Query

SELECT Round(dat.total_time/1000000000, 3) seconds,
       Round(dat.total_time/1000, 0)  micro_s,
       Round(dat.min_time/1000000000, 3) min_secs,
       Round(dat.max_time/1000000000, 3) max_secs,
       dat.total_occur calls,
       unt.unit_name,
       dat.unit_number,
       unt.unit_type,
       dat.line#,
       Trim(src.text) text
  FROM plsql_profiler_data dat
  JOIN plsql_profiler_units unt
    ON unt.runid            = dat.runid
   AND unt.unit_number      = dat.unit_number
  LEFT JOIN all_source      src
    ON src.type             != 'ANONYMOUS BLOCK'
   AND src.name             = unt.unit_name 
   AND src.line             = dat.line#
   AND src.owner            = unt.unit_owner
   AND src.type             = unt.unit_type
 WHERE dat.runid            = &RUN_ID
 ORDER BY unt.unit_name, unt.unit_number, dat.line#
  • This query lists the times and calls in PLSQL_PROFILER_DATA, for the given RUNID
  • PLSQL_PROFILER_UNITS is joined on UNIT_NUMBER
  • The view ALL_SOURCE is outer-joined on UNIT_NAME, UNIT_OWNER, UNIT_TYPE, LINE# to give the source line for stored source
  • Anonymous blocks do not have any saved source lines

Flat Profiler Feature Summary

We can summarise the features of the Flat Profiler in the following points:

  • Results are organised as lists of measures by line
  • Results are reported at the line level
  • Measures reported are elapsed times and numbers of calls, but not CPU times
  • External program units may not be included in the profiling (they are included only if the user can debug the unit)
  • Profiling is performed, after initial setup, by means of before and after API calls, followed by querying of results in tables






 

Analytic and Recursive SQL by Example

In my article A Note on Running Sums and Products in SQL, I used three different SQL techniques to get running products: Analytic Functions, Model Clause and Recursive Subquery Factors. I explained this in a recording on Twitter. I then wondered whether I could explain each of these SQL techniques in general using a single Twitter recording (which has a time limit of 140 seconds) each, and you can see the results in this Twitter thread.

In this article I set out the example queries that I used along with the results. You can get the complete scripts and recordings on GitHub, Oracle SQL Projects.

Analytic Functions

Oracle Doc: SQL for Analysis and Reporting

SQL Analytic Functions in a Tweet

Average by Grouping

SELECT department_id, AVG(salary) avg_salary
  FROM employees
 GROUP BY department_id
 ORDER BY department_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID AVG_SALARY
------------- ----------
           10       4400
           20       9500
           30       4150
           40       6500
           50 3475.55556
           60       5760
           70      10000
           80 8955.88235
           90 19333.3333
          100 8601.33333
          110      10154
                    7000

Analytic Averages: Overall, running and 3-point moving

SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary,
       AVG(salary) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id) avg_salary,
       AVG(salary) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) run_avg_salary,
       AVG(salary) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id
          ROWS BETWEEN 2 PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW) moving_avg_salary_3
  FROM employees
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY AVG_SALARY RUN_AVG_SALARY MOVING_AVG_SALARY_3
------------- ----------- ---------- ---------- -------------- -------------------
           10         200       4400       4400           4400                4400
           20         201      13000       9500          13000               13000
                      202       6000       9500           9500                9500
           30         114      11000       4150          11000               11000
                      115       3100       4150           7050                7050
                      116       2900       4150     5666.66667          5666.66667
                      117       2800       4150           4950          2933.33333
                      118       2600       4150           4480          2766.66667
                      119       2500       4150           4150          2633.33333
           40         203       6500       6500           6500                6500
           50         120       8000 3475.55556           8000                8000
                      121       8200 3475.55556           8100                8100
                      122       7900 3475.55556     8033.33333          8033.33333
                      123       6500 3475.55556           7650          7533.33333
                      124       5800 3475.55556           7280          6733.33333
                      125       3200 3475.55556           6600          5166.66667
                      126       2700 3475.55556     6042.85714                3900
                      127       2400 3475.55556         5587.5          2766.66667
                      128       2200 3475.55556     5211.11111          2433.33333
                      129       3300 3475.55556           5020          2633.33333
                      130       2800 3475.55556     4818.18182          2766.66667
                      131       2500 3475.55556           4625          2866.66667
                      132       2100 3475.55556     4430.76923          2466.66667
                      133       3300 3475.55556           4350          2633.33333
                      134       2900 3475.55556     4253.33333          2766.66667
                      135       2400 3475.55556         4137.5          2866.66667
                      136       2200 3475.55556     4023.52941                2500
                      137       3600 3475.55556           4000          2733.33333
                      138       3200 3475.55556     3957.89474                3000
                      139       2700 3475.55556           3895          3166.66667
                      140       2500 3475.55556     3828.57143                2800
                      141       3500 3475.55556     3813.63636                2900
                      142       3100 3475.55556      3782.6087          3033.33333
                      143       2600 3475.55556     3733.33333          3066.66667
                      144       2500 3475.55556           3684          2733.33333
                      180       3200 3475.55556     3665.38462          2766.66667
                      181       3100 3475.55556     3644.44444          2933.33333
                      182       2500 3475.55556     3603.57143          2933.33333
                      183       2800 3475.55556     3575.86207                2800
                      184       4200 3475.55556     3596.66667          3166.66667
                      185       4100 3475.55556     3612.90323                3700
                      186       3400 3475.55556        3606.25                3900
                      187       3000 3475.55556     3587.87879                3500
                      188       3800 3475.55556     3594.11765                3400
                      189       3600 3475.55556     3594.28571          3466.66667
                      190       2900 3475.55556           3575          3433.33333
                      191       2500 3475.55556     3545.94595                3000
                      192       4000 3475.55556     3557.89474          3133.33333
                      193       3900 3475.55556     3566.66667          3466.66667
                      194       3200 3475.55556         3557.5                3700
                      195       2800 3475.55556     3539.02439                3300
                      196       3100 3475.55556     3528.57143          3033.33333
                      197       3000 3475.55556     3516.27907          2966.66667
                      198       2600 3475.55556     3495.45455                2900
                      199       2600 3475.55556     3475.55556          2733.33333
           60         103       9000       5760           9000                9000
                      104       6000       5760           7500                7500
                      105       4800       5760           6600                6600
                      106       4800       5760           6150                5200
                      107       4200       5760           5760                4600
           70         204      10000      10000          10000               10000
           80         145      14000 8955.88235          14000               14000
                      146      13500 8955.88235          13750               13750
                      147      12000 8955.88235     13166.6667          13166.6667
                      148      11000 8955.88235          12625          12166.6667
                      149      10500 8955.88235          12200          11166.6667
                      150      10000 8955.88235     11833.3333               10500
                      151       9500 8955.88235          11500               10000
                      152       9000 8955.88235        11187.5                9500
                      153       8000 8955.88235     10833.3333          8833.33333
                      154       7500 8955.88235          10500          8166.66667
                      155       7000 8955.88235     10181.8182                7500
                      156      10000 8955.88235     10166.6667          8166.66667
                      157       9500 8955.88235     10115.3846          8833.33333
                      158       9000 8955.88235     10035.7143                9500
                      159       8000 8955.88235           9900          8833.33333
                      160       7500 8955.88235           9750          8166.66667
                      161       7000 8955.88235     9588.23529                7500
                      162      10500 8955.88235     9638.88889          8333.33333
                      163       9500 8955.88235     9631.57895                9000
                      164       7200 8955.88235           9510          9066.66667
                      165       6800 8955.88235     9380.95238          7833.33333
                      166       6400 8955.88235     9245.45455                6800
                      167       6200 8955.88235     9113.04348          6466.66667
                      168      11500 8955.88235         9212.5          8033.33333
                      169      10000 8955.88235           9244          9233.33333
                      170       9600 8955.88235     9257.69231          10366.6667
                      171       7400 8955.88235     9188.88889                9000
                      172       7300 8955.88235     9121.42857                8100
                      173       6100 8955.88235     9017.24138          6933.33333
                      174      11000 8955.88235     9083.33333          8133.33333
                      175       8800 8955.88235     9074.19355          8633.33333
                      176       8600 8955.88235       9059.375          9466.66667
                      177       8400 8955.88235     9039.39394                8600
                      179       6200 8955.88235     8955.88235          7733.33333
           90         100      24000 19333.3333          24000               24000
                      101      17000 19333.3333          20500               20500
                      102      17000 19333.3333     19333.3333          19333.3333
          100         108      12008 8601.33333          12008               12008
                      109       9000 8601.33333          10504               10504
                      110       8200 8601.33333           9736                9736
                      111       7700 8601.33333           9227                8300
                      112       7800 8601.33333         8941.6                7900
                      113       6900 8601.33333     8601.33333          7466.66667
          110         205      12008      10154          12008               12008
                      206       8300      10154          10154               10154
                      178       7000       7000           7000                7000

107 rows selected.

Analytics on Grouping: Running sum of the department average salaries

DEPARTMENT_ID AVG_SALARY RUN_SUM_AVG_SALARY
------------- ---------- ------------------
           10       4400               4400
           20       9500              13900
           30       4150              18050
           40       6500              24550
           50 3475.55556         28025.5556
           60       5760         33785.5556
           70      10000         43785.5556
           80 8955.88235         52741.4379
           90 19333.3333         72074.7712
          100 8601.33333         80676.1046
          110      10154         90830.1046
                    7000         97830.1046

Model Clause

Oracle Doc: SQL for Modeling

SQL Model Clause in a Tweet

Running and Final Products: Final first rule, default SEQUENTIAL order

WITH multipliers AS (
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, (1 + salary/10000) mult, 
       COUNT(*) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id) n_emps
  FROM employees
)
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, mult, running_prod, final_prod
  FROM multipliers
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id 
                                 ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary, mult, mult running_prod, mult final_prod, n_emps)
  RULES (
    final_prod[any] = running_prod[n_emps[CV()]],
    running_prod[rn > 1] = mult[CV()] * running_prod[CV() - 1]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY       MULT RUNNING_PROD FINAL_PROD
------------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------
           10         200       4400       1.44         1.44       1.44
           20         201      13000        2.3          2.3        1.6
                      202       6000        1.6         3.68        1.6
           30         114      11000        2.1          2.1       1.25
                      115       3100       1.31        2.751       1.25
                      116       2900       1.29      3.54879       1.25
                      117       2800       1.28    4.5424512       1.25
                      118       2600       1.26   5.72348851       1.25
                      119       2500       1.25   7.15436064       1.25
           40         203       6500       1.65         1.65       1.65
           50         120       8000        1.8          1.8       1.26
                      121       8200       1.82        3.276       1.26
                      122       7900       1.79      5.86404       1.26
                      123       6500       1.65     9.675666       1.26
                      124       5800       1.58   15.2875523       1.26
                      125       3200       1.32    20.179569       1.26
                      126       2700       1.27   25.6280526       1.26
                      127       2400       1.24   31.7787853       1.26
                      128       2200       1.22    38.770118       1.26
                      129       3300       1.33    51.564257       1.26
                      130       2800       1.28   66.0022489       1.26
                      131       2500       1.25   82.5028112       1.26
                      132       2100       1.21   99.8284015       1.26
                      133       3300       1.33   132.771774       1.26
                      134       2900       1.29   171.275589       1.26
                      135       2400       1.24    212.38173       1.26
                      136       2200       1.22    259.10571       1.26
                      137       3600       1.36   352.383766       1.26
                      138       3200       1.32   465.146571       1.26
                      139       2700       1.27   590.736145       1.26
                      140       2500       1.25   738.420182       1.26
                      141       3500       1.35   996.867245       1.26
                      142       3100       1.31   1305.89609       1.26
                      143       2600       1.26   1645.42907       1.26
                      144       2500       1.25   2056.78634       1.26
                      180       3200       1.32   2714.95797       1.26
                      181       3100       1.31   3556.59495       1.26
                      182       2500       1.25   4445.74368       1.26
                      183       2800       1.28   5690.55191       1.26
                      184       4200       1.42   8080.58372       1.26
                      185       4100       1.41    11393.623       1.26
                      186       3400       1.34   15267.4549       1.26
                      187       3000        1.3   19847.6913       1.26
                      188       3800       1.38    27389.814       1.26
                      189       3600       1.36   37250.1471       1.26
                      190       2900       1.29   48052.6898       1.26
                      191       2500       1.25   60065.8622       1.26
                      192       4000        1.4   84092.2071       1.26
                      193       3900       1.39   116888.168       1.26
                      194       3200       1.32   154292.382       1.26
                      195       2800       1.28   197494.248       1.26
                      196       3100       1.31   258717.465       1.26
                      197       3000        1.3   336332.705       1.26
                      198       2600       1.26   423779.208       1.26
                      199       2600       1.26   533961.802       1.26
           60         103       9000        1.9          1.9       1.42
                      104       6000        1.6         3.04       1.42
                      105       4800       1.48       4.4992       1.42
                      106       4800       1.48     6.658816       1.42
                      107       4200       1.42   9.45551872       1.42
           70         204      10000          2            2          2
           80         145      14000        2.4          2.4       1.62
                      146      13500       2.35         5.64       1.62
                      147      12000        2.2       12.408       1.62
                      148      11000        2.1      26.0568       1.62
                      149      10500       2.05     53.41644       1.62
                      150      10000          2    106.83288       1.62
                      151       9500       1.95   208.324116       1.62
                      152       9000        1.9    395.81582       1.62
                      153       8000        1.8   712.468477       1.62
                      154       7500       1.75   1246.81983       1.62
                      155       7000        1.7   2119.59372       1.62
                      156      10000          2   4239.18744       1.62
                      157       9500       1.95    8266.4155       1.62
                      158       9000        1.9   15706.1895       1.62
                      159       8000        1.8    28271.141       1.62
                      160       7500       1.75   49474.4968       1.62
                      161       7000        1.7   84106.6445       1.62
                      162      10500       2.05   172418.621       1.62
                      163       9500       1.95   336216.311       1.62
                      164       7200       1.72   578292.056       1.62
                      165       6800       1.68   971530.654       1.62
                      166       6400       1.64   1593310.27       1.62
                      167       6200       1.62   2581162.64       1.62
                      168      11500       2.15   5549499.68       1.62
                      169      10000          2   11098999.4       1.62
                      170       9600       1.96   21754038.7       1.62
                      171       7400       1.74   37852027.4       1.62
                      172       7300       1.73   65484007.4       1.62
                      173       6100       1.61    105429252       1.62
                      174      11000        2.1    221401429       1.62
                      175       8800       1.88    416234687       1.62
                      176       8600       1.86    774196517       1.62
                      177       8400       1.84   1424521591       1.62
                      179       6200       1.62   2307724978       1.62
           90         100      24000        3.4          3.4        2.7
                      101      17000        2.7         9.18        2.7
                      102      17000        2.7       24.786        2.7
          100         108      12008     2.2008       2.2008       1.69
                      109       9000        1.9      4.18152       1.69
                      110       8200       1.82    7.6103664       1.69
                      111       7700       1.77   13.4703485       1.69
                      112       7800       1.78   23.9772204       1.69
                      113       6900       1.69   40.5215024       1.69
          110         205      12008     2.2008       2.2008       1.83
                      206       8300       1.83     4.027464       1.83
                      178       7000        1.7          1.7        1.7

107 rows selected.

Running and Final Products: Final first rule, AUTOMATIC order

WITH multipliers AS (
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, (1 + salary/10000) mult, 
       COUNT(*) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id) n_emps
  FROM employees
)
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, mult, running_prod, final_prod
  FROM multipliers
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id 
                                 ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary, mult, mult running_prod, mult final_prod, n_emps)
  RULES AUTOMATIC ORDER (
    final_prod[any] = running_prod[n_emps[CV()]],
    running_prod[rn > 1] = mult[CV()] * running_prod[CV() - 1]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY       MULT RUNNING_PROD FINAL_PROD
------------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------
           10         200       4400       1.44         1.44       1.44
           20         201      13000        2.3          2.3       3.68
                      202       6000        1.6         3.68       3.68
           30         114      11000        2.1          2.1 7.15436064
                      115       3100       1.31        2.751 7.15436064
                      116       2900       1.29      3.54879 7.15436064
                      117       2800       1.28    4.5424512 7.15436064
                      118       2600       1.26   5.72348851 7.15436064
                      119       2500       1.25   7.15436064 7.15436064
           40         203       6500       1.65         1.65       1.65
           50         120       8000        1.8          1.8 533961.802
                      121       8200       1.82        3.276 533961.802
                      122       7900       1.79      5.86404 533961.802
                      123       6500       1.65     9.675666 533961.802
                      124       5800       1.58   15.2875523 533961.802
                      125       3200       1.32    20.179569 533961.802
                      126       2700       1.27   25.6280526 533961.802
                      127       2400       1.24   31.7787853 533961.802
                      128       2200       1.22    38.770118 533961.802
                      129       3300       1.33    51.564257 533961.802
                      130       2800       1.28   66.0022489 533961.802
                      131       2500       1.25   82.5028112 533961.802
                      132       2100       1.21   99.8284015 533961.802
                      133       3300       1.33   132.771774 533961.802
                      134       2900       1.29   171.275589 533961.802
                      135       2400       1.24    212.38173 533961.802
                      136       2200       1.22    259.10571 533961.802
                      137       3600       1.36   352.383766 533961.802
                      138       3200       1.32   465.146571 533961.802
                      139       2700       1.27   590.736145 533961.802
                      140       2500       1.25   738.420182 533961.802
                      141       3500       1.35   996.867245 533961.802
                      142       3100       1.31   1305.89609 533961.802
                      143       2600       1.26   1645.42907 533961.802
                      144       2500       1.25   2056.78634 533961.802
                      180       3200       1.32   2714.95797 533961.802
                      181       3100       1.31   3556.59495 533961.802
                      182       2500       1.25   4445.74368 533961.802
                      183       2800       1.28   5690.55191 533961.802
                      184       4200       1.42   8080.58372 533961.802
                      185       4100       1.41    11393.623 533961.802
                      186       3400       1.34   15267.4549 533961.802
                      187       3000        1.3   19847.6913 533961.802
                      188       3800       1.38    27389.814 533961.802
                      189       3600       1.36   37250.1471 533961.802
                      190       2900       1.29   48052.6898 533961.802
                      191       2500       1.25   60065.8622 533961.802
                      192       4000        1.4   84092.2071 533961.802
                      193       3900       1.39   116888.168 533961.802
                      194       3200       1.32   154292.382 533961.802
                      195       2800       1.28   197494.248 533961.802
                      196       3100       1.31   258717.465 533961.802
                      197       3000        1.3   336332.705 533961.802
                      198       2600       1.26   423779.208 533961.802
                      199       2600       1.26   533961.802 533961.802
           60         103       9000        1.9          1.9 9.45551872
                      104       6000        1.6         3.04 9.45551872
                      105       4800       1.48       4.4992 9.45551872
                      106       4800       1.48     6.658816 9.45551872
                      107       4200       1.42   9.45551872 9.45551872
           70         204      10000          2            2          2
           80         145      14000        2.4          2.4 2307724978
                      146      13500       2.35         5.64 2307724978
                      147      12000        2.2       12.408 2307724978
                      148      11000        2.1      26.0568 2307724978
                      149      10500       2.05     53.41644 2307724978
                      150      10000          2    106.83288 2307724978
                      151       9500       1.95   208.324116 2307724978
                      152       9000        1.9    395.81582 2307724978
                      153       8000        1.8   712.468477 2307724978
                      154       7500       1.75   1246.81983 2307724978
                      155       7000        1.7   2119.59372 2307724978
                      156      10000          2   4239.18744 2307724978
                      157       9500       1.95    8266.4155 2307724978
                      158       9000        1.9   15706.1895 2307724978
                      159       8000        1.8    28271.141 2307724978
                      160       7500       1.75   49474.4968 2307724978
                      161       7000        1.7   84106.6445 2307724978
                      162      10500       2.05   172418.621 2307724978
                      163       9500       1.95   336216.311 2307724978
                      164       7200       1.72   578292.056 2307724978
                      165       6800       1.68   971530.654 2307724978
                      166       6400       1.64   1593310.27 2307724978
                      167       6200       1.62   2581162.64 2307724978
                      168      11500       2.15   5549499.68 2307724978
                      169      10000          2   11098999.4 2307724978
                      170       9600       1.96   21754038.7 2307724978
                      171       7400       1.74   37852027.4 2307724978
                      172       7300       1.73   65484007.4 2307724978
                      173       6100       1.61    105429252 2307724978
                      174      11000        2.1    221401429 2307724978
                      175       8800       1.88    416234687 2307724978
                      176       8600       1.86    774196517 2307724978
                      177       8400       1.84   1424521591 2307724978
                      179       6200       1.62   2307724978 2307724978
           90         100      24000        3.4          3.4     24.786
                      101      17000        2.7         9.18     24.786
                      102      17000        2.7       24.786     24.786
          100         108      12008     2.2008       2.2008 40.5215024
                      109       9000        1.9      4.18152 40.5215024
                      110       8200       1.82    7.6103664 40.5215024
                      111       7700       1.77   13.4703485 40.5215024
                      112       7800       1.78   23.9772204 40.5215024
                      113       6900       1.69   40.5215024 40.5215024
          110         205      12008     2.2008       2.2008   4.027464
                      206       8300       1.83     4.027464   4.027464
                      178       7000        1.7          1.7        1.7

107 rows selected.

Average and Moving Average

SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, avg_salary, moving_avg_salary_3
  FROM employees
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id 
                                 ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary, salary avg_salary, salary moving_avg_salary_3)
  RULES (
    avg_salary[ANY] = AVG(salary)[ANY],
    moving_avg_salary_3[ANY] = AVG(salary)[rn BETWEEN CV()-2 AND CV()]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY AVG_SALARY MOVING_AVG_SALARY_3
------------- ----------- ---------- ---------- -------------------
           10         200       4400       4400                4400
           20         201      13000       9500               13000
                      202       6000       9500                9500
           30         114      11000       4150               11000
                      115       3100       4150                7050
                      116       2900       4150          5666.66667
                      117       2800       4150          2933.33333
                      118       2600       4150          2766.66667
                      119       2500       4150          2633.33333
           40         203       6500       6500                6500
           50         120       8000 3475.55556                8000
                      121       8200 3475.55556                8100
                      122       7900 3475.55556          8033.33333
                      123       6500 3475.55556          7533.33333
                      124       5800 3475.55556          6733.33333
                      125       3200 3475.55556          5166.66667
                      126       2700 3475.55556                3900
                      127       2400 3475.55556          2766.66667
                      128       2200 3475.55556          2433.33333
                      129       3300 3475.55556          2633.33333
                      130       2800 3475.55556          2766.66667
                      131       2500 3475.55556          2866.66667
                      132       2100 3475.55556          2466.66667
                      133       3300 3475.55556          2633.33333
                      134       2900 3475.55556          2766.66667
                      135       2400 3475.55556          2866.66667
                      136       2200 3475.55556                2500
                      137       3600 3475.55556          2733.33333
                      138       3200 3475.55556                3000
                      139       2700 3475.55556          3166.66667
                      140       2500 3475.55556                2800
                      141       3500 3475.55556                2900
                      142       3100 3475.55556          3033.33333
                      143       2600 3475.55556          3066.66667
                      144       2500 3475.55556          2733.33333
                      180       3200 3475.55556          2766.66667
                      181       3100 3475.55556          2933.33333
                      182       2500 3475.55556          2933.33333
                      183       2800 3475.55556                2800
                      184       4200 3475.55556          3166.66667
                      185       4100 3475.55556                3700
                      186       3400 3475.55556                3900
                      187       3000 3475.55556                3500
                      188       3800 3475.55556                3400
                      189       3600 3475.55556          3466.66667
                      190       2900 3475.55556          3433.33333
                      191       2500 3475.55556                3000
                      192       4000 3475.55556          3133.33333
                      193       3900 3475.55556          3466.66667
                      194       3200 3475.55556                3700
                      195       2800 3475.55556                3300
                      196       3100 3475.55556          3033.33333
                      197       3000 3475.55556          2966.66667
                      198       2600 3475.55556                2900
                      199       2600 3475.55556          2733.33333
           60         103       9000       5760                9000
                      104       6000       5760                7500
                      105       4800       5760                6600
                      106       4800       5760                5200
                      107       4200       5760                4600
           70         204      10000      10000               10000
           80         145      14000 8955.88235               14000
                      146      13500 8955.88235               13750
                      147      12000 8955.88235          13166.6667
                      148      11000 8955.88235          12166.6667
                      149      10500 8955.88235          11166.6667
                      150      10000 8955.88235               10500
                      151       9500 8955.88235               10000
                      152       9000 8955.88235                9500
                      153       8000 8955.88235          8833.33333
                      154       7500 8955.88235          8166.66667
                      155       7000 8955.88235                7500
                      156      10000 8955.88235          8166.66667
                      157       9500 8955.88235          8833.33333
                      158       9000 8955.88235                9500
                      159       8000 8955.88235          8833.33333
                      160       7500 8955.88235          8166.66667
                      161       7000 8955.88235                7500
                      162      10500 8955.88235          8333.33333
                      163       9500 8955.88235                9000
                      164       7200 8955.88235          9066.66667
                      165       6800 8955.88235          7833.33333
                      166       6400 8955.88235                6800
                      167       6200 8955.88235          6466.66667
                      168      11500 8955.88235          8033.33333
                      169      10000 8955.88235          9233.33333
                      170       9600 8955.88235          10366.6667
                      171       7400 8955.88235                9000
                      172       7300 8955.88235                8100
                      173       6100 8955.88235          6933.33333
                      174      11000 8955.88235          8133.33333
                      175       8800 8955.88235          8633.33333
                      176       8600 8955.88235          9466.66667
                      177       8400 8955.88235                8600
                      179       6200 8955.88235          7733.33333
           90         100      24000 19333.3333               24000
                      101      17000 19333.3333               20500
                      102      17000 19333.3333          19333.3333
          100         108      12008 8601.33333               12008
                      109       9000 8601.33333               10504
                      110       8200 8601.33333                9736
                      111       7700 8601.33333                8300
                      112       7800 8601.33333                7900
                      113       6900 8601.33333          7466.66667
          110         205      12008      10154               12008
                      206       8300      10154               10154
                      178       7000       7000                7000

107 rows selected.

UPSERT with FOR Loop: Split records into two with salary halved

SELECT department_id, employee_id, old_salary, split_salary
  FROM employees
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id 
                                 ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary old_salary, salary split_salary, 
          Count(*) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id) as n_emps)
  RULES UPSERT (
    employee_id[FOR rn FROM n_emps[1]+1 TO 2*n_emps[1] INCREMENT 1] = 
       employee_id[CV() - n_emps[1]],
    split_salary[FOR rn FROM n_emps[1]+1 TO 2*n_emps[1] INCREMENT 1] = 
       old_salary[CV() - n_emps[1]],
    split_salary[ANY] = 0.5 * split_salary[CV()]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID OLD_SALARY SPLIT_SALARY
------------- ----------- ---------- ------------
           10         200       4400         2200
                      200                    2200
           20         201      13000         6500
                      201                    6500
                      202                    3000
                      202       6000         3000
           30         114                    5500
                      114      11000         5500
                      115       3100         1550
                      115                    1550
                      116                    1450
                      116       2900         1450
                      117                    1400
                      117       2800         1400
                      118                    1300
                      118       2600         1300
                      119       2500         1250
                      119                    1250
           40         203       6500         3250
                      203                    3250
           50         120       8000         4000
                      120                    4000
                      121                    4100
                      121       8200         4100
                      122                    3950
                      122       7900         3950
                      123       6500         3250
                      123                    3250
                      124                    2900
                      124       5800         2900
                      125                    1600
                      125       3200         1600
                      126       2700         1350
                      126                    1350
                      127       2400         1200
                      127                    1200
                      128                    1100
                      128       2200         1100
                      129                    1650
                      129       3300         1650
                      130                    1400
                      130       2800         1400
                      131                    1250
                      131       2500         1250
                      132                    1050
                      132       2100         1050
                      133       3300         1650
                      133                    1650
                      134       2900         1450
                      134                    1450
                      135                    1200
                      135       2400         1200
                      136       2200         1100
                      136                    1100
                      137       3600         1800
                      137                    1800
                      138                    1600
                      138       3200         1600
                      139                    1350
                      139       2700         1350
                      140                    1250
                      140       2500         1250
                      141                    1750
                      141       3500         1750
                      142                    1550
                      142       3100         1550
                      143                    1300
                      143       2600         1300
                      144                    1250
                      144       2500         1250
                      180       3200         1600
                      180                    1600
                      181       3100         1550
                      181                    1550
                      182       2500         1250
                      182                    1250
                      183       2800         1400
                      183                    1400
                      184       4200         2100
                      184                    2100
                      185       4100         2050
                      185                    2050
                      186                    1700
                      186       3400         1700
                      187                    1500
                      187       3000         1500
                      188       3800         1900
                      188                    1900
                      189       3600         1800
                      189                    1800
                      190                    1450
                      190       2900         1450
                      191                    1250
                      191       2500         1250
                      192       4000         2000
                      192                    2000
                      193                    1950
                      193       3900         1950
                      194                    1600
                      194       3200         1600
                      195       2800         1400
                      195                    1400
                      196                    1550
                      196       3100         1550
                      197       3000         1500
                      197                    1500
                      198       2600         1300
                      198                    1300
                      199       2600         1300
                      199                    1300
           60         103       9000         4500
                      103                    4500
                      104       6000         3000
                      104                    3000
                      105       4800         2400
                      105                    2400
                      106                    2400
                      106       4800         2400
                      107                    2100
                      107       4200         2100
           70         204                    5000
                      204      10000         5000
           80         145                    7000
                      145      14000         7000
                      146      13500         6750
                      146                    6750
                      147      12000         6000
                      147                    6000
                      148      11000         5500
                      148                    5500
                      149      10500         5250
                      149                    5250
                      150      10000         5000
                      150                    5000
                      151       9500         4750
                      151                    4750
                      152       9000         4500
                      152                    4500
                      153                    4000
                      153       8000         4000
                      154                    3750
                      154       7500         3750
                      155                    3500
                      155       7000         3500
                      156                    5000
                      156      10000         5000
                      157                    4750
                      157       9500         4750
                      158                    4500
                      158       9000         4500
                      159       8000         4000
                      159                    4000
                      160                    3750
                      160       7500         3750
                      161                    3500
                      161       7000         3500
                      162      10500         5250
                      162                    5250
                      163                    4750
                      163       9500         4750
                      164                    3600
                      164       7200         3600
                      165                    3400
                      165       6800         3400
                      166       6400         3200
                      166                    3200
                      167       6200         3100
                      167                    3100
                      168      11500         5750
                      168                    5750
                      169      10000         5000
                      169                    5000
                      170       9600         4800
                      170                    4800
                      171       7400         3700
                      171                    3700
                      172                    3650
                      172       7300         3650
                      173       6100         3050
                      173                    3050
                      174      11000         5500
                      174                    5500
                      175       8800         4400
                      175                    4400
                      176       8600         4300
                      176                    4300
                      177       8400         4200
                      177                    4200
                      179       6200         3100
                      179                    3100
           90         100                   12000
                      100      24000        12000
                      101      17000         8500
                      101                    8500
                      102      17000         8500
                      102                    8500
          100         108      12008         6004
                      108                    6004
                      109       9000         4500
                      109                    4500
                      110       8200         4100
                      110                    4100
                      111                    3850
                      111       7700         3850
                      112       7800         3900
                      112                    3900
                      113       6900         3450
                      113                    3450
          110         205      12008         6004
                      205                    6004
                      206       8300         4150
                      206                    4150
                      178                    3500
                      178       7000         3500

214 rows selected.

ITERATE: Take square root of salary iteratively until average < 10

SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, avg_salary
  FROM employees
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary, salary avg_salary, salary moving_avg_salary_3)
  RULES ITERATE (100) UNTIL avg_salary[1] < 10.0 (
        salary[ANY] = SQRT(salary[CV()]),
    avg_salary[ANY] = AVG(salary)[ANY]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY AVG_SALARY
------------- ----------- ---------- ----------
           10         200  8.1444764  8.1444764
           20         201 10.6778997 9.73950855
                      202 8.80111737 9.73950855
           30         114 10.2411369 7.75455528
                      115 7.46174535 7.75455528
                      116 7.33836822 7.75455528
                      117 7.27427153 7.75455528
                      118 7.14074192 7.75455528
                      119 7.07106781 7.75455528
           40         203  8.9790076  8.9790076
           50         120 9.45741609 7.58389021
                      121 9.51597874 7.58389021
                      122 9.42772211 7.58389021
                      123  8.9790076 7.58389021
                      124 8.72683969 7.58389021
                      125 7.52120619 7.58389021
                      126 7.20843424 7.58389021
                      127 6.99927102 7.58389021
                      128 6.84866101 7.58389021
                      129 7.57928931 7.58389021
                      130 7.27427153 7.58389021
                      131 7.07106781 7.58389021
                      132 6.76947243 7.58389021
                      133 7.57928931 7.58389021
                      134 7.33836822 7.58389021
                      135 6.99927102 7.58389021
                      136 6.84866101 7.58389021
                      137 7.74596669 7.58389021
                      138 7.52120619 7.58389021
                      139 7.20843424 7.58389021
                      140 7.07106781 7.58389021
                      141 7.69160567 7.58389021
                      142 7.46174535 7.58389021
                      143 7.14074192 7.58389021
                      144 7.07106781 7.58389021
                      180 7.52120619 7.58389021
                      181 7.46174535 7.58389021
                      182 7.07106781 7.58389021
                      183 7.27427153 7.58389021
                      184 8.05030478 7.58389021
                      185 8.00195241 7.58389021
                      186 7.63606698 7.58389021
                      187 7.40082804 7.58389021
                      188 7.85137822 7.58389021
                      189 7.74596669 7.58389021
                      190 7.33836822 7.58389021
                      191 7.07106781 7.58389021
                      192 7.95270729 7.58389021
                      193 7.90252997 7.58389021
                      194 7.52120619 7.58389021
                      195 7.27427153 7.58389021
                      196 7.46174535 7.58389021
                      197 7.40082804 7.58389021
                      198 7.14074192 7.58389021
                      199 7.14074192 7.58389021
           60         103 9.74003746 8.64772508
                      104 8.80111737 8.64772508
                      105  8.3235829 8.64772508
                      106  8.3235829 8.64772508
                      107 8.05030478 8.64772508
           70         204 3.16227766 3.16227766
           80         145 10.8775731  9.6838805
                      146 10.7791234  9.6838805
                      147 10.4663514  9.6838805
                      148 10.2411369  9.6838805
                      149 10.1227223  9.6838805
                      150         10  9.6838805
                      151 9.87258545  9.6838805
                      152 9.74003746  9.6838805
                      153 9.45741609  9.6838805
                      154 9.30604859  9.6838805
                      155 9.14691219  9.6838805
                      156         10  9.6838805
                      157 9.87258545  9.6838805
                      158 9.74003746  9.6838805
                      159 9.45741609  9.6838805
                      160 9.30604859  9.6838805
                      161 9.14691219  9.6838805
                      162 10.1227223  9.6838805
                      163 9.87258545  9.6838805
                      164  9.2115587  9.6838805
                      165 9.08086519  9.6838805
                      166 8.94427191  9.6838805
                      167 8.87356066  9.6838805
                      168 10.3555808  9.6838805
                      169         10  9.6838805
                      170 9.89846401  9.6838805
                      171 9.27487211  9.6838805
                      172 9.24337803  9.6838805
                      173  8.8375617  9.6838805
                      174 10.2411369  9.6838805
                      175 9.68546928  9.6838805
                      176 9.62996287  9.6838805
                      177 9.57347972  9.6838805
                      179 8.87356066  9.6838805
           90         100 3.52798236 3.42875376
                      101 3.37913945 3.42875376
                      102 3.37913945 3.42875376
          100         108 10.4680953  9.6005671
                      109 9.74003746  9.6005671
                      110 9.51597874  9.6005671
                      111 9.36747799  9.6005671
                      112 9.39774487  9.6005671
                      113 9.11406817  9.6005671
          110         205 3.23544361 3.16245958
                      206 3.08947554 3.16245958
                      178 9.14691219 9.14691219

107 rows selected.

Within-Rule Order Default Ascending: Set salary = previous salary

PROMPT Within-Rule Order Default Ascending: Set salary = previous salary
SELECT department_id, employee_id, old_salary, salary
  FROM employees
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary old_salary, salary)
  RULES (
    salary[rn > 1] = salary[CV()-1]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID OLD_SALARY     SALARY
------------- ----------- ---------- ----------
           10         200       4400       4400
           20         201      13000      13000
                      202       6000      13000
           30         114      11000      11000
                      115       3100      11000
                      116       2900      11000
                      117       2800      11000
                      118       2600      11000
                      119       2500      11000
           40         203       6500       6500
           50         120       8000       8000
                      121       8200       8000
                      122       7900       8000
                      123       6500       8000
                      124       5800       8000
                      125       3200       8000
                      126       2700       8000
                      127       2400       8000
                      128       2200       8000
                      129       3300       8000
                      130       2800       8000
                      131       2500       8000
                      132       2100       8000
                      133       3300       8000
                      134       2900       8000
                      135       2400       8000
                      136       2200       8000
                      137       3600       8000
                      138       3200       8000
                      139       2700       8000
                      140       2500       8000
                      141       3500       8000
                      142       3100       8000
                      143       2600       8000
                      144       2500       8000
                      180       3200       8000
                      181       3100       8000
                      182       2500       8000
                      183       2800       8000
                      184       4200       8000
                      185       4100       8000
                      186       3400       8000
                      187       3000       8000
                      188       3800       8000
                      189       3600       8000
                      190       2900       8000
                      191       2500       8000
                      192       4000       8000
                      193       3900       8000
                      194       3200       8000
                      195       2800       8000
                      196       3100       8000
                      197       3000       8000
                      198       2600       8000
                      199       2600       8000
           60         103       9000       9000
                      104       6000       9000
                      105       4800       9000
                      106       4800       9000
                      107       4200       9000
           70         204      10000      10000
           80         145      14000      14000
                      146      13500      14000
                      147      12000      14000
                      148      11000      14000
                      149      10500      14000
                      150      10000      14000
                      151       9500      14000
                      152       9000      14000
                      153       8000      14000
                      154       7500      14000
                      155       7000      14000
                      156      10000      14000
                      157       9500      14000
                      158       9000      14000
                      159       8000      14000
                      160       7500      14000
                      161       7000      14000
                      162      10500      14000
                      163       9500      14000
                      164       7200      14000
                      165       6800      14000
                      166       6400      14000
                      167       6200      14000
                      168      11500      14000
                      169      10000      14000
                      170       9600      14000
                      171       7400      14000
                      172       7300      14000
                      173       6100      14000
                      174      11000      14000
                      175       8800      14000
                      176       8600      14000
                      177       8400      14000
                      179       6200      14000
           90         100      24000      24000
                      101      17000      24000
                      102      17000      24000
          100         108      12008      12008
                      109       9000      12008
                      110       8200      12008
                      111       7700      12008
                      112       7800      12008
                      113       6900      12008
          110         205      12008      12008
                      206       8300      12008
                      178       7000       7000

107 rows selected.

Within-Rule Order Descending: Set salary = previous salary

SELECT department_id, employee_id, old_salary, salary
  FROM employees
 MODEL
  PARTITION BY (department_id)
  DIMENSION BY (Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) rn)
  MEASURES (employee_id, salary old_salary, salary)
  RULES (
    salary[rn > 1] ORDER BY rn DESC = salary[CV()-1]
  )
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID OLD_SALARY     SALARY
------------- ----------- ---------- ----------
           10         200       4400       4400
           20         201      13000      13000
                      202       6000      13000
           30         114      11000      11000
                      115       3100      11000
                      116       2900       3100
                      117       2800       2900
                      118       2600       2800
                      119       2500       2600
           40         203       6500       6500
           50         120       8000       8000
                      121       8200       8000
                      122       7900       8200
                      123       6500       7900
                      124       5800       6500
                      125       3200       5800
                      126       2700       3200
                      127       2400       2700
                      128       2200       2400
                      129       3300       2200
                      130       2800       3300
                      131       2500       2800
                      132       2100       2500
                      133       3300       2100
                      134       2900       3300
                      135       2400       2900
                      136       2200       2400
                      137       3600       2200
                      138       3200       3600
                      139       2700       3200
                      140       2500       2700
                      141       3500       2500
                      142       3100       3500
                      143       2600       3100
                      144       2500       2600
                      180       3200       2500
                      181       3100       3200
                      182       2500       3100
                      183       2800       2500
                      184       4200       2800
                      185       4100       4200
                      186       3400       4100
                      187       3000       3400
                      188       3800       3000
                      189       3600       3800
                      190       2900       3600
                      191       2500       2900
                      192       4000       2500
                      193       3900       4000
                      194       3200       3900
                      195       2800       3200
                      196       3100       2800
                      197       3000       3100
                      198       2600       3000
                      199       2600       2600
           60         103       9000       9000
                      104       6000       9000
                      105       4800       6000
                      106       4800       4800
                      107       4200       4800
           70         204      10000      10000
           80         145      14000      14000
                      146      13500      14000
                      147      12000      13500
                      148      11000      12000
                      149      10500      11000
                      150      10000      10500
                      151       9500      10000
                      152       9000       9500
                      153       8000       9000
                      154       7500       8000
                      155       7000       7500
                      156      10000       7000
                      157       9500      10000
                      158       9000       9500
                      159       8000       9000
                      160       7500       8000
                      161       7000       7500
                      162      10500       7000
                      163       9500      10500
                      164       7200       9500
                      165       6800       7200
                      166       6400       6800
                      167       6200       6400
                      168      11500       6200
                      169      10000      11500
                      170       9600      10000
                      171       7400       9600
                      172       7300       7400
                      173       6100       7300
                      174      11000       6100
                      175       8800      11000
                      176       8600       8800
                      177       8400       8600
                      179       6200       8400
           90         100      24000      24000
                      101      17000      24000
                      102      17000      17000
          100         108      12008      12008
                      109       9000      12008
                      110       8200       9000
                      111       7700       8200
                      112       7800       7700
                      113       6900       7800
          110         205      12008      12008
                      206       8300      12008
                      178       7000       7000

107 rows selected.

Recursive Subquery Factors

Oracle Doc: Recursive Subquery Factoring

SQL Recursive Subquery Factors in a Tweet

Employee Tree: Connect By

WITH cby AS (
    SELECT last_name, employee_id, manager_id, LEVEL lvl
      FROM employees
     START WITH employee_id = 100
     CONNECT BY PRIOR employee_id = manager_id
     ORDER SIBLINGS BY last_name
)
SELECT employee_id,
       LPad('.', 3*(lvl - 1), '.') || last_name last_name,
       manager_id,
       lvl
  FROM cby
/
EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME            MANAGER_ID        LVL
----------- -------------------- ---------- ----------
        100 King                                     1
        148 ...Cambrault                100          2
        172 ......Bates                 148          3
        169 ......Bloom                 148          3
        170 ......Fox                   148          3
        173 ......Kumar                 148          3
        168 ......Ozer                  148          3
        171 ......Smith                 148          3
        102 ...De Haan                  100          2
        103 ......Hunold                102          3
        105 .........Austin             103          4
        104 .........Ernst              103          4
        107 .........Lorentz            103          4
        106 .........Pataballa          103          4
        147 ...Errazuriz                100          2
        166 ......Ande                  147          3
        167 ......Banda                 147          3
        163 ......Greene                147          3
        165 ......Lee                   147          3
        164 ......Marvins               147          3
        162 ......Vishney               147          3
        121 ...Fripp                    100          2
        130 ......Atkinson              121          3
        129 ......Bissot                121          3
        185 ......Bull                  121          3
        187 ......Cabrio                121          3
        186 ......Dellinger             121          3
        131 ......Marlow                121          3
        132 ......Olson                 121          3
        184 ......Sarchand              121          3
        201 ...Hartstein                100          2
        202 ......Fay                   201          3
        122 ...Kaufling                 100          2
        188 ......Chung                 122          3
        189 ......Dilly                 122          3
        190 ......Gates                 122          3
        135 ......Gee                   122          3
        133 ......Mallin                122          3
        191 ......Perkins               122          3
        136 ......Philtanker            122          3
        134 ......Rogers                122          3
        101 ...Kochhar                  100          2
        204 ......Baer                  101          3
        108 ......Greenberg             101          3
        110 .........Chen               108          4
        109 .........Faviet             108          4
        113 .........Popp               108          4
        111 .........Sciarra            108          4
        112 .........Urman              108          4
        205 ......Higgins               101          3
        206 .........Gietz              205          4
        203 ......Mavris                101          3
        200 ......Whalen                101          3
        124 ...Mourgos                  100          2
        142 ......Davies                124          3
        197 ......Feeney                124          3
        199 ......Grant                 124          3
        143 ......Matos                 124          3
        198 ......OConnell              124          3
        141 ......Rajs                  124          3
        144 ......Vargas                124          3
        196 ......Walsh                 124          3
        146 ...Partners                 100          2
        160 ......Doran                 146          3
        156 ......King                  146          3
        158 ......McEwen                146          3
        161 ......Sewall                146          3
        159 ......Smith                 146          3
        157 ......Sully                 146          3
        114 ...Raphaely                 100          2
        116 ......Baida                 114          3
        119 ......Colmenares            114          3
        118 ......Himuro                114          3
        115 ......Khoo                  114          3
        117 ......Tobias                114          3
        145 ...Russell                  100          2
        151 ......Bernstein             145          3
        154 ......Cambrault             145          3
        152 ......Hall                  145          3
        153 ......Olsen                 145          3
        150 ......Tucker                145          3
        155 ......Tuvault               145          3
        123 ...Vollman                  100          2
        192 ......Bell                  123          3
        193 ......Everett               123          3
        195 ......Jones                 123          3
        137 ......Ladwig                123          3
        194 ......McCain                123          3
        140 ......Patel                 123          3
        139 ......Seo                   123          3
        138 ......Stiles                123          3
        120 ...Weiss                    100          2
        181 ......Fleaur                120          3
        183 ......Geoni                 120          3
        127 ......Landry                120          3
        128 ......Markle                120          3
        126 ......Mikkilineni           120          3
        125 ......Nayer                 120          3
        182 ......Sullivan              120          3
        180 ......Taylor                120          3
        149 ...Zlotkey                  100          2
        174 ......Abel                  149          3
        178 ......Grant                 149          3
        175 ......Hutton                149          3
        179 ......Johnson               149          3
        177 ......Livingston            149          3
        176 ......Taylor                149          3

107 rows selected.

Employee Tree: Recursive subquery factors, depth first

The result for the following query is the same as for the above CONNECT BY query:

WITH rsf(employee_id, last_name, manager_id, lvl) AS (
    SELECT employee_id,
           last_name,
           manager_id,
           1 lvl
      FROM employees
     WHERE manager_id IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT e.employee_id,
           e.last_name,
           e.manager_id,
           r.lvl + 1
      FROM rsf r
      JOIN employees e ON e.manager_id = r.employee_id
) SEARCH DEPTH FIRST BY last_name SET ord_by
SELECT employee_id,
       LPad('.', 3*(lvl - 1), '.') || last_name last_name,
       manager_id,
       lvl
  FROM rsf
 ORDER BY ord_by
/

Employee Tree: Recursive subquery factors, breadth first

WITH rsf(employee_id, last_name, manager_id, lvl) AS (
    SELECT employee_id,
           last_name,
           manager_id,
           1 lvl
      FROM employees
     WHERE manager_id IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT e.employee_id,
           e.last_name,
           e.manager_id,
           r.lvl + 1
      FROM rsf r
      JOIN employees e ON e.manager_id = r.employee_id
) SEARCH BREADTH FIRST BY last_name SET ord_by
SELECT employee_id,
       LPad('.', 3*(lvl - 1), '.') || last_name last_name,
       manager_id,
       lvl
  FROM rsf
 ORDER BY ord_by
/
EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME            MANAGER_ID        LVL
----------- -------------------- ---------- ----------
        100 King                                     1
        148 ...Cambrault                100          2
        102 ...De Haan                  100          2
        147 ...Errazuriz                100          2
        121 ...Fripp                    100          2
        201 ...Hartstein                100          2
        122 ...Kaufling                 100          2
        101 ...Kochhar                  100          2
        124 ...Mourgos                  100          2
        146 ...Partners                 100          2
        114 ...Raphaely                 100          2
        145 ...Russell                  100          2
        123 ...Vollman                  100          2
        120 ...Weiss                    100          2
        149 ...Zlotkey                  100          2
        174 ......Abel                  149          3
        166 ......Ande                  147          3
        130 ......Atkinson              121          3
        204 ......Baer                  101          3
        116 ......Baida                 114          3
        167 ......Banda                 147          3
        172 ......Bates                 148          3
        192 ......Bell                  123          3
        151 ......Bernstein             145          3
        129 ......Bissot                121          3
        169 ......Bloom                 148          3
        185 ......Bull                  121          3
        187 ......Cabrio                121          3
        154 ......Cambrault             145          3
        188 ......Chung                 122          3
        119 ......Colmenares            114          3
        142 ......Davies                124          3
        186 ......Dellinger             121          3
        189 ......Dilly                 122          3
        160 ......Doran                 146          3
        193 ......Everett               123          3
        202 ......Fay                   201          3
        197 ......Feeney                124          3
        181 ......Fleaur                120          3
        170 ......Fox                   148          3
        190 ......Gates                 122          3
        135 ......Gee                   122          3
        183 ......Geoni                 120          3
        199 ......Grant                 124          3
        178 ......Grant                 149          3
        108 ......Greenberg             101          3
        163 ......Greene                147          3
        152 ......Hall                  145          3
        205 ......Higgins               101          3
        118 ......Himuro                114          3
        103 ......Hunold                102          3
        175 ......Hutton                149          3
        179 ......Johnson               149          3
        195 ......Jones                 123          3
        115 ......Khoo                  114          3
        156 ......King                  146          3
        173 ......Kumar                 148          3
        137 ......Ladwig                123          3
        127 ......Landry                120          3
        165 ......Lee                   147          3
        177 ......Livingston            149          3
        133 ......Mallin                122          3
        128 ......Markle                120          3
        131 ......Marlow                121          3
        164 ......Marvins               147          3
        143 ......Matos                 124          3
        203 ......Mavris                101          3
        194 ......McCain                123          3
        158 ......McEwen                146          3
        126 ......Mikkilineni           120          3
        125 ......Nayer                 120          3
        198 ......OConnell              124          3
        153 ......Olsen                 145          3
        132 ......Olson                 121          3
        168 ......Ozer                  148          3
        140 ......Patel                 123          3
        191 ......Perkins               122          3
        136 ......Philtanker            122          3
        141 ......Rajs                  124          3
        134 ......Rogers                122          3
        184 ......Sarchand              121          3
        139 ......Seo                   123          3
        161 ......Sewall                146          3
        171 ......Smith                 148          3
        159 ......Smith                 146          3
        138 ......Stiles                123          3
        182 ......Sullivan              120          3
        157 ......Sully                 146          3
        180 ......Taylor                120          3
        176 ......Taylor                149          3
        117 ......Tobias                114          3
        150 ......Tucker                145          3
        155 ......Tuvault               145          3
        144 ......Vargas                124          3
        162 ......Vishney               147          3
        196 ......Walsh                 124          3
        200 ......Whalen                101          3
        105 .........Austin             103          4
        110 .........Chen               108          4
        104 .........Ernst              103          4
        109 .........Faviet             108          4
        206 .........Gietz              205          4
        107 .........Lorentz            103          4
        106 .........Pataballa          103          4
        113 .........Popp               108          4
        111 .........Sciarra            108          4
        112 .........Urman              108          4

107 rows selected.

Products using Recursive Subquery Factors: Passing through expressions

WITH multipliers AS (
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, (1 + salary/10000) mult, 
       Row_Number() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) rn
  FROM employees
), rsf (department_id, employee_id, rn, salary, mult, running_prod, lvl) AS (
    SELECT department_id, employee_id, rn, salary, mult,
          mult running_prod, 1 lvl
      FROM multipliers
     WHERE rn = 1
    UNION ALL
    SELECT m.department_id, m.employee_id, m.rn, m.salary, m.mult,
           r.running_prod * m.mult, r.lvl + 1
      FROM rsf r
      JOIN multipliers m
        ON m.rn = r.rn + 1
       AND m.department_id = r.department_id
)
SELECT department_id, employee_id, salary, mult, running_prod, lvl
  FROM rsf
 ORDER BY department_id, employee_id
/
DEPARTMENT_ID EMPLOYEE_ID     SALARY       MULT RUNNING_PROD        LVL
------------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------
           10         200       4400       1.44         1.44          1
           20         201      13000        2.3          2.3          1
                      202       6000        1.6         3.68          2
           30         114      11000        2.1          2.1          1
                      115       3100       1.31        2.751          2
                      116       2900       1.29      3.54879          3
                      117       2800       1.28    4.5424512          4
                      118       2600       1.26   5.72348851          5
                      119       2500       1.25   7.15436064          6
           40         203       6500       1.65         1.65          1
           50         120       8000        1.8          1.8          1
                      121       8200       1.82        3.276          2
                      122       7900       1.79      5.86404          3
                      123       6500       1.65     9.675666          4
                      124       5800       1.58   15.2875523          5
                      125       3200       1.32    20.179569          6
                      126       2700       1.27   25.6280526          7
                      127       2400       1.24   31.7787853          8
                      128       2200       1.22    38.770118          9
                      129       3300       1.33    51.564257         10
                      130       2800       1.28   66.0022489         11
                      131       2500       1.25   82.5028112         12
                      132       2100       1.21   99.8284015         13
                      133       3300       1.33   132.771774         14
                      134       2900       1.29   171.275589         15
                      135       2400       1.24    212.38173         16
                      136       2200       1.22    259.10571         17
                      137       3600       1.36   352.383766         18
                      138       3200       1.32   465.146571         19
                      139       2700       1.27   590.736145         20
                      140       2500       1.25   738.420182         21
                      141       3500       1.35   996.867245         22
                      142       3100       1.31   1305.89609         23
                      143       2600       1.26   1645.42907         24
                      144       2500       1.25   2056.78634         25
                      180       3200       1.32   2714.95797         26
                      181       3100       1.31   3556.59495         27
                      182       2500       1.25   4445.74368         28
                      183       2800       1.28   5690.55191         29
                      184       4200       1.42   8080.58372         30
                      185       4100       1.41    11393.623         31
                      186       3400       1.34   15267.4549         32
                      187       3000        1.3   19847.6913         33
                      188       3800       1.38    27389.814         34
                      189       3600       1.36   37250.1471         35
                      190       2900       1.29   48052.6898         36
                      191       2500       1.25   60065.8622         37
                      192       4000        1.4   84092.2071         38
                      193       3900       1.39   116888.168         39
                      194       3200       1.32   154292.382         40
                      195       2800       1.28   197494.248         41
                      196       3100       1.31   258717.465         42
                      197       3000        1.3   336332.705         43
                      198       2600       1.26   423779.208         44
                      199       2600       1.26   533961.802         45
           60         103       9000        1.9          1.9          1
                      104       6000        1.6         3.04          2
                      105       4800       1.48       4.4992          3
                      106       4800       1.48     6.658816          4
                      107       4200       1.42   9.45551872          5
           70         204      10000          2            2          1
           80         145      14000        2.4          2.4          1
                      146      13500       2.35         5.64          2
                      147      12000        2.2       12.408          3
                      148      11000        2.1      26.0568          4
                      149      10500       2.05     53.41644          5
                      150      10000          2    106.83288          6
                      151       9500       1.95   208.324116          7
                      152       9000        1.9    395.81582          8
                      153       8000        1.8   712.468477          9
                      154       7500       1.75   1246.81983         10
                      155       7000        1.7   2119.59372         11
                      156      10000          2   4239.18744         12
                      157       9500       1.95    8266.4155         13
                      158       9000        1.9   15706.1895         14
                      159       8000        1.8    28271.141         15
                      160       7500       1.75   49474.4968         16
                      161       7000        1.7   84106.6445         17
                      162      10500       2.05   172418.621         18
                      163       9500       1.95   336216.311         19
                      164       7200       1.72   578292.056         20
                      165       6800       1.68   971530.654         21
                      166       6400       1.64   1593310.27         22
                      167       6200       1.62   2581162.64         23
                      168      11500       2.15   5549499.68         24
                      169      10000          2   11098999.4         25
                      170       9600       1.96   21754038.7         26
                      171       7400       1.74   37852027.4         27
                      172       7300       1.73   65484007.4         28
                      173       6100       1.61    105429252         29
                      174      11000        2.1    221401429         30
                      175       8800       1.88    416234687         31
                      176       8600       1.86    774196517         32
                      177       8400       1.84   1424521591         33
                      179       6200       1.62   2307724978         34
           90         100      24000        3.4          3.4          1
                      101      17000        2.7         9.18          2
                      102      17000        2.7       24.786          3
          100         108      12008     2.2008       2.2008          1
                      109       9000        1.9      4.18152          2
                      110       8200       1.82    7.6103664          3
                      111       7700       1.77   13.4703485          4
                      112       7800       1.78   23.9772204          5
                      113       6900       1.69   40.5215024          6
          110         205      12008     2.2008       2.2008          1
                      206       8300       1.83     4.027464          2
                      178       7000        1.7          1.7          1

107 rows selected.

Here's a query structure diagram for the query:

and here's a diagram showing partitioning and flow through the iterations:

You can see the scripts and full output on my new GitHub project,
Small SQL projects, in the analytics_and_recursion_explainers folder.

Here's an article from 2017 where you can see recursive SQL techniques used to solve a variety of difficult combinatorial optimization problems: Knapsacks and Networks in SQL.